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Research & publications from Canada

Cunningham, A., & Baker, L. (2003). Waiting for mommy: Giving a voice to the hidden victims of imprisonment. London, Canada: Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System.


Bennett, M. (2015). A pilot study examining the connection between child welfare and incarcerated Aboriginal parents and their children through narrative inquiry. Winnipeg, MB: Ka Ni Kanichihk Inc. Retrieved from


Brennan, S. (2014). Canada’s mother-child program: Examining its emergence, usage, and current state. Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology, 3(1), 11 -20.


Davison, K. M., D'Andreamatteo, C., Markham, S., Holloway, C., Marshall, G., & Smye, V. L. (2019). Food security in the context of paternal incarceration: Family impact perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(5), 776.


Department of Justice Canada. (2019). Indigenous overrepresentation in the criminal justice system. Ottawa, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.


Knudsen, E. M. (2016). The experiences of Canadian children of prisoners. PhD thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).


Maynard, R. (2017). Policing Black lives: State violence in Canada from slavery to the present. Winnipeg: Fernwood.


McCormick, A. V., Millar, H. A., & Paddock, G. B. (2014). In the best interests of the child: Strategies for recognizing and supporting Canada’s at-risk population of children with incarcerated parents. Abbotsford, BC: University of Fraser Valley Centre for Safe Schools and Communities. Retrieved from


Miller, K. (2017). Canada’s mother-child program and incarcerated aboriginal mothers: How and why the program is inaccessible to aboriginal female offenders. Canadian Family Law Quarterly, 37(1), 1-23.


Milner, H. R. (2007). Race, culture, and researcher positionality: Working through dangers seen, unseen, and unforeseen. Educational Researcher, 36(7), 388–400.


Paynter, M. J. (2018). Policy and legal protection for breastfeeding and incarcerated women in Canada. Journal of Human Lactation, 34(2), 276–281.


Paynter, M. J., & Snelgrove-Clarke, E. (2019). “Breastfeeding in public” for incarcerated women: The baby-friendly steps. International Breastfeeding Journal, 14.


Reid, J. (2017). Jail time: Effects of attachment, gender, and contact on the associations between parental incarceration, offspring symptoms, and delinquency. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Trent University, Peterborough, Canada.


Reid, J. (2018). The forgotten victims: Impact of parental incarceration on the psychological health of the innocent children left behind. In A. Arya & T. Piggott (Eds.), Under-served: Health determinants of Indigenous, Inner-City, and Migrant Populations in Canada (pp. 141-152). Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars.


Statistics Canada. (2018). Adult and youth correctional statistics in Canada, 2016/2017. Ottawa, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from


Vowel, C. (2016). Indigenous writes a guide to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit issues in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: HighWater Press.


Withers, L., & Folsom, J. (2007). Incarcerated fathers: A descriptive analysis. Research Report R-186. Ottawa, Ontario: Correctional Service of Canada. Retrieved from